The plan was codenamed "Topac" after Topac Amru, an Inca prince who fought an unconventional war against the Spanish rule in 18th century Uruguay. Hence, for the supply of weapons, reliance on outside suppliers, mainly the UK and later France, had to continue. In 1975, the US lifted the embargo on the supply of arms to Pakistan under the pretext that the Soviet Union had dumped excess arms in India. 12. 21. Refer H.S. Any kind of war is a brutal expression of politics and realism. After the war, the Government of India tried to resolve the differences with Pakistan on a new and firm basis. India not only countered the attack militarily but also lodged a complaint with the United Nation's Secretary General on December 30, 1947, against the Pakistani invasion on Kashmir. This 700-km-long line running from Chammb in the south to Ladakh at NJ 9842 point after which there is glacier, provided the future battleground between the two countries in the glaciers. The significance of the Bangladesh War on India's national security, apart from being militarily strategic, lay in the political and diplomatic spheres. Your right to know India's role as a regional power was asserted. The Cold War era was a new phase for international capital as it saw the advent of nuclear weapons and the beginning stages of proxy warfare. K.K. Since then, Pakistan has been asking Indian forces to withdraw from their positions and accept the boundary as was acceptable in 1972, whereas India insists that Pakistan accept the Saltoro Ridge as the line of control.34 The contentious issue persists. Hence, India and Pakistan started building their naval strength which has become a commendable force. The Pakistani nuclear programme received a momentum by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. The arms embargo fell heavily on Pakistan as it was dependent on American supplies. Because of the perceived pro-Azerbaijan and pro-Turkey policies implemented by Pakistan, Armenia has developed friendly relations with India , and supports the Indian position on the Kashmir conflict. However, once the issue is resolved, another issue would erupt, keeping Pakistan's hostile posture against India alive,33 since this is necessary for its domestic consumption where the people are fed on anti-India slogans. The pursuit of power and global supremacy has birthed nothing but devastation. In 1984, India occupied the commanding heights of the glacier. With the global emphasis on geo-economics, the Sino-India and US-India relations have improved which could be affected by the nuclear explosions conducted by India. 34. The Bangladesh war and its impact on the power structure in South Asia, the Afghanistan crisis, the supply of advanced technology and weapons to Pakistan by China, a Pakistan oriented US foreign policy etc., have been the external situational inputs of Indian Foreign Policy. religious extremism; the role of external factors in augmenting sectarian divide in Pakistan and foreign forces got a free hand to launch their proxy war in Pakistan on sectarian grounds; and strategies should be formulated to deal with the challenge of sectarian violence in Pakistan. The US, on the other hand, sent twelve C-130 Hercules transport planes with the crews to help India in transporting its men and materials on the mountainous borders.5. Refer Robert G. Wirsing, India, Pakistan, and the Kashmir Dispute: On Regional Conflict and its Resolution (London: Macmillan Press, 1994), p. 107. However, Nehru had publicly opposed India developing nuclear weapons and had asserted that nuclear energy would be used for power production. This paper tries to study the presence of the external powers in the region and their association with India and Pakistan. General Zia, as a counter-step helped Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP), an anti-Shia Deobandi religious organization. Its integration is important not only because of its strategic significance but also because its disintegration would have a spillover effect on other states leading to the balkanisation of the Indian Union.25, Pakistan maintains that Kashmir is the prime contentious issue with India and unless it is resolved, cooperation in other areas is not possible. The US and Japan imposed economic sanctions. Negotiations were held with the UK, France, Belgium, Canada and the US for equipment and materials to develop Indian resources. Refer S.P. Pakistan had foreseen the utility of developing relations with China and it declared India as the aggressor against China in 1962.6 Pakistan treated China as a shield to protect itself from any possible Indian attack. The other side portrays a battlefield for Uncle Sam and China. 27. Refer POT (P), vol. The Indo-Pakistan War started on December 3 which also witnessed the active involvement of the Great Powers. This is the Pakistani idea of "strategic depth." It is said that the money generated through smuggling of narcotics is used to keep terrorism and insurgency alive. In the same year, the Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor was established with the help of the USA and it functions under the safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency. 108-109. In order to avoid dependence on one supplier, Pakistan gradually moved towards China. Pakistan's former Foreign Minister Gohar Ayub said that the Kashmir issue can lead to a nuclear war between India and Pakistan. Pakistan's efforts to utilise the support of the Arab world has also not met with much success because, India's relations with the Arab world are cordial and its economic ties are expanding.32. The actors here treat the conflict as a zero-sum game, where success for one is automatically a defeat for the other. Only cooperation can help in fostering peace and cooperation in the region. The Indian victory in the Indo-Pak War of 1971 gave a powerful boost to the development of nuclear capabilities. In recent times, conflict in Syria is a prime example where Damascus represented a buffer state by global powers: Russia and the US. In short, proxy wars … COMPETITIVE patriotism is the mood of the moment on the subcontinent. external actors. Asia Aug 19th 1999 edition. 22. However, during President Clinton's visit to China in July 1998, the issue was not raised for discussion. Pakistan claimed that the threat from India propelled it to conduct the nuclear tests. 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