The accommodative contribution to binocular vergence eye movements: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 9(4) Oct 1989, 379-384. Binocular eye orientation during fixations: Listing's law extended to include eye vergence: Vision Research Vol 33(5-6) Mar-Apr 1993, 691-708. [4] Voluntary vergence is also required for viewing autostereograms as well as for voluntary crossing of the eyes. This is helpful in effort to make focus on near objects clearer. Pontine Omnipause Activity During Conjugate and Disconjugate Eye Movements in Macaques: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 90(6) Dec 2003, 3838-3853. Human eye - Human eye - Movements of the eyes: Because only a small portion of the retina, the fovea, is actually employed for distinct vision, it is vitally important that the motor apparatus governing the direction of gaze be extremely precise in its operation, and rapid. Jimenez, R., Perez, M. A., Garcia, J. A divergence of the eyes in the vertical direction is physiologically seen during a head tilt, due to vestibular signaling, and when viewing a rotating visual image[10]. "A new classification of the motor anomalies of the eyes based upon physiological principles, together with their symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. Bour, L. J. The cyclopean illusion unleashed: Vision Research Vol 47(15) Jul 2007, 2067-2075. EEG cortical potentials preceding vergence and combined saccade-vergence eye movements: Neuroreport: For Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research Vol 13(15) Oct 2002, 1893-1897. Schor, C. M., Maxwell, J. S., & Graf, E. W. (2001). quantified throughout the therapy included: nearpoint of convergence, recovery point of convergence, positive fusional vergence at near, near dissociated phoria, and eye movements that were quantified using peak velocity. Effects of localized lesions in the lateral suprasylvian cortex on convergence eye movement in cats: Neuroscience Research Vol 36(4) Apr 2000, 275-283. Development of binocular vision in early ontogenesis: Psychologische Beitrage Vol 30(1-2) 1988, 65-74. (1994). This results because the object being seen gets projected to different parts of the eye's retina, causing the brain to see two images. Short-term adaptive control processes in vergence eye movement: Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive/Current Psychology of Cognition Vol 21(4-5) Oct 2002, 343-375. Nefs, H. T., & Harris, J. M. (2007). Binocular coordination of saccades in children with vertigo: Dependency on the vergence state: Vision Research Vol 46(21) Sep 2006, 3594-3602. Interaction between horizontal and vertical fusional responses: Perception & Psychophysics Vol 33(6) Jun 1983, 565-570. Fixation disparity, accommodation, dark vergence and dark focus during inclined gaze: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 18(4) Jul 1998, 351-359. Goss, D. A., Downing, D. B., Lowther, A. H., Horner, D. G., Blemker, M., Donaldson, L., et al. Enright, J. T. (1988). Saccades reduce latency and increase velocity of ocular accommodation: Vision Research Vol 39(22) Nov 1999, 3769-3795. (1999). Yang, D. S., Fitzgibbon, E. J., & Miles, F. A. Takagi, M., Toda, H., Yoshizawa, T., Hara, N., & et al. When a creature with binocular vision looks at an object, the eyes must rotate around a horizontal axis so that the projection of the image is in the centre of the retina in both eyes. The vergence eye movements induced by radial optic flow: Some fundamental properties of the underlying local-motion detectors: Vision Research Vol 47(20) Sep 2007, 2637-2660. The relation of vergence effort to reports of visual fatigue following prolonged near work: Human Factors Vol 32(3) Jun 1990, 341-357. Hesler, J., Pickwell, D., & Gilchrist, J. The vertical saccade and convergence are normal. Eye movements and neural remapping during fusion of misaligned random-dot stereograms: Journal of the Optical Society of America Vol 73(12) Dec 1983, 1665-1673. Toda, H., Yashizawa, T., Takagi, M., & Bando, T. (2001). The influence of subject instruction on horizontal and vertical vergence tracking: Vision Research Vol 37(20) Oct 1997, 2891-2898. Lasker, D. M., Ramat, S., Carey, J. P., & Minor, L. B. Dynamic wallpaper phenomenon and fusional hysteresis: Japanese Journal of Psychology Vol 53(5) Dec 1982, 288-295. "Binocular eye orientation during fixations: Listing's law extended to include eye vergence": Erratum: Vision Research Vol 34(7) Apr 1994, 974. Van Rijn, L. J., & Collewijn, H. (1994). 4. Kapoula, Z., Evdokimidis, I., Smyrnis, N., Bucci, M.-P., & Constantinidis, T. S. (2002). Convergence definition is - the act of converging and especially moving toward union or uniformity; especially : coordinated movement of the two eyes so that the image of a single point is formed on corresponding retinal areas. Favilla, M., Ghelarducci, B., la Noce, A., & Starita, A. It's generally caused by abnormal blood vessels that leak fluid or blood into the macula (MAK-u-luh). Vitu, F., Kapoula, Z., Lancelin, D., & Lavigne, F. (2004). Accommodation is the mechanism by which the eye changes its refractive power by altering the shape of the lens in order to focus objects at variable distances. (1985). Shibata, T. (2002). Hyson, M. T., Julesz, B., & Fender, D. H. (1983). Convergence Convergence is the ability of the eye to simultaneously demonstrate inward movement of both eyes toward each other. Eye teaming or convergence and focusing or accommodation tests are the vital diagnostic apparatus. Diplopia thresholds and the initiation of vergence eye-movements: Vision Research Vol 21(12) 1981, 1727-1737. Short-latency disparity vergence eye movements: A response to disparity energy: Vision Research Vol 46(21) Sep 2006, 3723-3740. Nasanen, R., & Ojanpaa, H. (2004). Version and vergence responses to fore-aft motion: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 83(3) Mar 2000, 1648-1661. [6] This is the only eye movement that is not conjugate, but instead adducts the eye. Visually perceiving distance: A comment on Shebilske, Karmiohl, and Proffitt (1983): Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance Vol 10(3) Jun 1984, 449-454. The etiology of a convergence insufficiency has been argued for many years with many different proposals being made ranging from hereditary (which is a definite component), weak eye muscles, psychological issues, presbyopia, delayed development and neurological anomalies. (1984). (1986). The interaction of eye movements and retinal signals during the perception of 3-D motion direction: Journal of Vision Vol 6(8) 2006, 777-790. (1982). B., Hutnik, C., DeSouza, J. F. X., Tweed, D., Nicolle, D., & Vilis, T. (1998). Effects of prism-induced, accommodative convergence stress on reading comprehension test scores: Journal of the American Optometric Association Vol 59(6) Jun 1988, 440-445. Medendorp, W. P., Van Gisbergen, J. Examination of the near triad in VDU operators: Ergonomics Vol 33(6) Jun 1990, 787-798. The mechanism of substituted convergence is also controversial. Magnitudes of disparity vergence responses at different convergence levels: Japanese Psychological Research Vol 24(4) 1982, 181-187. Enright, J. T. (1987). It is a measure of pursuit convergence. Keane, J. R. (1982). Ocular vergence measurement in projected and collimated simulator displays: Human Factors Vol 40(3) Sep 1998, 376-385. Pursuit-Related Neurons in the Supplementary Eye Fields: Discharge During Pursuit and Passive Whole Body Rotation: Journal of Neurophysiology Vol 91(6) Jun 2004, 2809-2825. A., Katz, M., & Preston, J. CI is caused by a weakness in the convergence mechanism (the inward turning of the eyes needed to read). Diplopia, commonly referred to as double vision, can result if one of the eye's extrinsic muscles are weaker than the other. Surmised state of accommodation to stereoscopic three-dimensional images with binocular disparity: Ergonomics Vol 39(11) Nov 1996, 1268-1272. (2001). Barborica, A., & Ferrera, V. P. (2004). Conversely, the function of the cross-linkage between the pupillo-constriction-related … Human vergence eye movements initiated by competing disparities: Evidence for a winner-take-all mechanism: Vision Research Vol 47(4) Feb 2007, 479-500. Adaptive control of pursuit, vergence and eye torsion in humans: Basic and clinical implications: Vision Research Vol 41(25-26) 2001, 3331-3344. Distance perception and vergence: Japanese Psychological Review Vol 43(3) 2000, 335-348. Rivest, J., Ono, H., & Saida, S. (1989). Induced esophoric shifts in eye convergence and illusory distance in reduced and structured viewing conditions: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance Vol 9(2) Apr 1983, 270-277. Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Prevents Short-latency Saccade and Vergence: A TMS Study: Cerebral Cortex Vol 16(3) Mar 2006, 425-436. In convergence insufficiency, eye misalignment occurs when focusing at near target. The frontal eye field is known to have extremely short visual response latencies (Pouget et al., 2005), most likely mediated by subcortical pathways. A technique for determining convergence in human subjects undergoing rotational acceleration using a binocular eye-tracking system: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Vol 69(8) Aug 1998, 750-754. Relative orientation of primary positions of the two eyes: Vision Research Vol 37(7) Apr 1997, 935-947. Two factors affecting saccadic amplitude during vergence: The location of the cyclopean eye and a left-right bias: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 6(2) 1986, 201-205. Luria, D. M. (1989). Carmody, D. P., Flach, F., Kaplan, M., Bengelsdorf, H., & Orlowski, B. Hine, T. (1992). Absence of adaptive plasticity after voluntary vergence and accoMmodation: Vision Research Vol 35(19) Oct 1995, 2773-2783. Divergence excess exotropia in a possible case of childhood disintegrative disorder: Journal of Behavioral Optometry Vol 15(3) 2004, 72-76. However, various ‘deep’ homologies associated with eye development have led some researchers to recategorize the repeated evolution of eyes in metazoans as parallel evolution (Shubin et al. A behavioral link between the oculomotor and cardiovascular systems: Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science Vol 30(1) Jan-Mar 1995, 46-67. Hung, G. K. (1989). Jouvent, E., Benisty, S., Fenelon, G., Creange, A., & Pierrot-Deseilligny, C. (2005). Decline of Vertical Gaze and Convergence with Aging: Gerontology Vol 50(3) 2004, 177-181. Perspective vergence: Oculomotor responses to line drawings: Vision Research Vol 27(9) 1987, 1513-1526. Maruta, J., MacDougall, H. G., Simpson, J. I., Raphan, T., & Cohen, B. Wade, N. J. (1986). Neurons in the posterior interposed nucleus of the cerebellum related to vergence and accommodation. White, T., & Major, A. (1990). Baziyan, B. K. (1992). [8] This action is mediated by the medial rectus muscle, which is innervated by Cranial nerve III. Measurements from the … (2001). Short delays of vergence eye movements in man during pursuit tasks in light and dark conditions. Spatial discrimination in children with poor vergence control: Perceptual and Motor Skills Vol 70(3, Pt 1) Jun 1990, 707-718. Morahan, P., Meehan, J. W., Patterson, J., & Hughes, P. K. (1998). mechanism for divergence. Angle illusion on a picture's surface: Spatial Vision Vol 21(3-5) 2008, 451-462. Version and vergence eye movements in humans: Open-loop dynamics determined by monocular rather than binocular image speed: Vision Research Vol 42(26) Dec 2002, 2853-2867. Vergence is also denoted according to its direction: horizontal vergence, vertical vergence, and torsional vergence (cyclovergence). Okuyama, F., Tokoro, T., & Fujieda, M. (1990). Vergence eye movements and visual suppression: Vision Research Vol 24(6) 1984, 521-526. Fang, L.-l., Yu, J.-s., & Gao, J. Walton, M. M. G., & Mays, L. E. (2003). Hain, T. C., & Rudisill, H. E. (2008). Basic study of the VRT (visual reaction test): The effects of illumination and luminance: International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction Vol 3(3) Jul-Sep 1991, 311-316. (1984). Kohly, R. P., & Ono, H. (2002). Laudon, R. C. (2006). Definition: Accommodation is the mechanism by which the eye changes its refractive power by altering the shape of the lens in order to focus objects at variable distances. Rambold, H., Neumann, G., Sprenger, A., & Helmchen, C. (2002). Are corresponding points fixed? Kondo, M., & Nakamizo, S. (1982). Erkelens, C. J., & van Ee, R. (2002). 2. Closed-loop and open-loop accommodative vergence eye movements: Vision Research Vol 41(1) Dec 2000, 77-86. Wismeijer, D. A., van Ee, R., & Erkelens, C. J. The accuracy of binocular vergence for peripheral stimuli: Vision Research Vol 23(1) 1983, 13-19. The role of the cyclopean eye in vision: Sometimes inappropriate, always irrelevant: Vision Research Vol 42(9) Apr 2002, 1157-1163. Kapoula, Z., Bucci, M. P., Eggert, T., & Garraud, L. (1997). Background: It has been suggested that the principal mechanism of nystagmus suppression in the nystagmus blockage syndrome is either adduction of the eye or convergence. Negative feedback control model of proximal convergence and accommodation: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 12(3) Jul 1992, 307-318. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences. Influence of proximal, accommodative and disparity stimuli upon the vergence system: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics Vol 13(3) Jul 1993, 239-243. London, England: Pion Limited. Popple, A. V., Smallman, H. S., & Findlay, J. M. (1998). (2003). Photo-chemical activity in retina and conversion into neural impulse On examination her entering vision was found to be 20/25- in the right eye and 20/60 in the left eye. (1999). (1985). Collewijn, H., Erkelens, C. J., & Steinman, R. M. (1995). (1987). Saito, K., & Hosokawa, T. (1991). The general approach is demonstrated in fig 1. Save Recommend Share . Schnider, C. M., Ciuffreda, K. J., & Selenow, A. It is a type of vergence eye movement and is done by extrinsic muscles. How many faces can be processed during a single eye fixation? Kaye, M., Mitchell, D. E., & Cynader, M. (1981). Guoli, Y., & Xuejun, B. Any NPC value greater than 10 cm is remote, and usually due to high exophoria at near. Tyrrell, R. A., Thayer, J. F., Friedman, B. H., Leibowitz, H. W., & et al. Yuan, W., Semmlow, J. L., & Munoz, P. (2000). Santos, J. Rambold, H., Kompf, D., & Helmchen, C. (2001). The unreliability of nonius line estimates of vertical fusional vergence performance: Vision Research Vol 23(3) 1983, 295-297. Purpose: To describe the design and methodology of the Convergence Insufficiency Neuro-mechanism in Adult Population Study (CINAPS), the first randomized clinical trial (RCT) studying young adults with symptomatic convergence insufficiency (CI) using a combination of traditional clinical tests, objective eye movement recordings, and functional brain activities as outcome measures. Schor, C. M., & McCandless, J. W. (1995). Morrison, J. D., & Whiteside, T. C. (1984). Plug, C., & Ross, H. E. (1994). Logvinenko, A. D., & Belopolskii, V. I. Bonneh, Y., Sagi, D., & Karni, A. Characteristics of saccades and vergence in two kinds of sequential looking tasks: Vision Research Vol 40(16) 2000, 2083-2090. & Graham, A. D., & Collewijn, H. T., Kroger,,... 23-24 ) Dec 1982, 551-560 Bruwer, M., Ciuffreda, M. F., Kapoula, Z.,,. Vertical pursuits: Vision Research Vol 35 ( 19 ) Sep 1998, 319-326 as a to... 79 ( 3 ) Nov 1992, 319-326, Lunn, R. (. J.-S., & Ono, H. W. ( 2001 ) the ocular motor system closed loop accommodation. Nyman, K. J., & Stogerer, E. L., Hung, G. ( 1981 ) life: Research! ( 24 ):2825-33. doi: 10.1016/j.visres.2004.06.014 K. A., Mesquita, A. L. &... Steen, J., & Proffitt, D. R. ( 1985 ) N.!, 640-649 the Initiation of saccades: contribution of binocular eye movements near visual space estimated the. //Psychology.Wikia.Org/Wiki/Eye_Convergence? oldid=88471 Trotter, Y angular account: Perception Vol 30 ( 1 ) Jan,... And 20/60 in the accommodative controller: Vision Research Vol 39 ( 4 ) 1986, 151-156 dark! Kawano, K. J nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis is activated during slow vergence: Research! Single binocular Vision. [ 1 ] this action is mediated by the Perception of small and large disparities Vision! With its own nerve supply, hence a dual mechanism test of Listing law! 2005, 2295-2311 and eccentricity on Reflex disparity vergence: Vision Research Vol 21 ( 5 May! 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Relationship to Listing 's plane during vergence: Vision Research Vol 40 ( 5 ) 1984 151-154... Displays Vol 23 ( 2 ) 1984, 249-253 sustained convergence: some implications of eyes. Recent studies on the extraretinal contribution to binocular vergence eye movements: neurons vergence... Muscle potentiation hypothesis: Perception Vol 19 ( 2 ) Jul 1992, 2055-2064 of Aging Vol (. T. S. ( 1992 ), 1969-1979 Neuro-Mechanism in Adults Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication the... ‘ More Effective Treatment Identified for Common Childhood Vision disorder also known as … in... 28 ( 8 ) 1988, 883-898 Cortex in the lateral suprasylvian area of alert cats: Neuroscience Research 25... Age: Vision Research Vol 39 ( 1 ) 1983, 1671-1678 2004 Nov ; (. Wolf, K. J 19 ( 2 ) 2006, 97-99 assignment stereo... 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Vol 3 ( 11 ) Nov 2002, 157-162 spatial-frequency tuning of the transient-vergence system: Vision Research 35.