#2.1 Scriptures for σταυρὸς 'stauros' meaning 'cross' Strong's 4716; Introduction 2.1. The Encyclopedia Britannica noted: It was not till the time of Constantine that the cross was publicly used as the symbol of the Christian religion. The staurogram combines the Greek letters tau-rho to stand in for parts of the Greek words for “cross” (stauros) and “crucify” (stauroō) in Bodmer papyrus P75.Staurograms serve as the earliest images of Jesus on the cross, predating other Christian crucifixion imagery by 200 years. 162). (Dr. Bullinger, The Companion Bible, app. Since the Greek word (stauros) that is translated as "cross" literally means "tree" or "pole" (see Acts 5:30) why do most Bibles render this word as 'cross'? “The word stauros denotes an upright pale or stake, to which criminals were nailed for execution…The verb stauroo means to drive stakes. From the foregoing cloud of witnesses it should be clear that the term stauros properly, literally , and originally signifies a "stake." (Cross. The Greek word translated “cross” is stauros, meaning “a pole or a cross used as an instrument of capital punishment.” The Greek word stauroo, which is translated “crucify,” means “to be attached to a pole or cross.” Outside of the Bible, the same verb was also used in the context of putting up a fence with stakes. Our English word ‘cross’ is the translation of the Latin crux; but the Greek stauros no more means a crux than the word ‘stick’ means a ‘crutch. Our English word "cross" is the translation of the Latin crux; but the Greek stauros no more means a crux than the word "stick" means a "crutch". 162). Odyssey xiv.11] [ftnote, Iliad xxiv.453. Homer uses the word stauros of an ordinary pole or stake, or a simple piece of timber. They even go so far as to claim that, […] But look at this statement by one of Christendom's favorite NT Greek experts: "STAUROS ... denotes, primarily, an upright pale or stake.On such malefactors were nailed for execution. Our English word 'cross' is the translation of the Latin crux; but the Greek stauros no more means a crux than the word 'stick' means a 'crutch.'" Watchtower Reasoning for Stake Support for Cross Linguistics: Stauros did not mean Cross until some time "later" than Jesus Xylon does not mean a cross but a single piece of wood : The Watchtower (and Vines) is incorrect, Stauros could mean Cross over 100 years prior to Jesus Xylon is never used as a description of Jesus instrument of death, but as a midrashic parallel to Deuteronomy '” (Dr. Bullinger, The Companion Bible, app. Is it likely that the cross, which was in use centuries before Christianity (see crux ansata), is a pagan symbol that was later incorporated into "Christianity" by Constantine? It includes every verse where the word ' stauros ' (Strong's 4716) appears in the New Testament. Furthermore, Jesus, likely was not even crucified on a cross, as the word normally translated as cross (stauros) in the New Testament means a stake. The cross of St. Andrew is an X-shaped cross, as tradition says Andrew the Apostle was crucified on an X-shaped cross; it is notable as one of the major heraldic symbols of Scotland, as St. Andrew is the the patron saint of Scotland--which is also why you can see it in the Union Jack. STAUROS - Some have objected to stauros being translated as "torture stake" in the NWT as opposed to the traditional "cross." This is a thorough word study about the meaning of the Greek word σταυρὸς, 'stauros' translated 'cross'. Regarding the use of the word "cross", Vines Expository Dictionary on Words of the New Testament states that the primary translation of the word "stauros" is an upright stake or pole. Jehovah’s Witnesses believe that the Greek word translated as “cross” in the New Testament, or stauros, actually means “upright stake,” or in their words, a “torture stake.” They claim that Jesus was nailed through both wrists on a large vertical stake without a crossbeam (pictured right).