Other studies have attempted to predict the costs of a pandemic as serious as the 1918 Spanish flu on the U.S. economy, where 30% of all workers became ill, and 2.5% were killed. , This genus has one species, influenza C virus, which infects humans, dogs and pigs, sometimes causing both severe illness and local epidemics. The difference is most probably explained by the fact that over 200 viruses cause the same or similar symptoms as the flu virus.  No benefit has been found in those with other health problems.  Increasingly prevalent resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors has led researchers to seek alternative antiviral medications with different mechanisms of action.  It has been estimated that a future pandemic could cause hundreds of billions of dollars in direct and indirect costs. Italian, literally, influence, from Medieval Latin influentia; from the belief that epidemics were due to the influence of the stars. One is called a Rapid Molecular Assay, when an upper respiratory tract specimen (mucus) is taken using a nasal swab or a nasopharyngeal swab.  Strains that are easily transmitted between people have hemagglutinin proteins that bind to receptors in the upper part of the respiratory tract, such as in the nose, throat and mouth.  The etiological cause of influenza, the virus family Orthomyxoviridae, was first discovered in pigs by Richard Shope in 1931. Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Most people will recover completely in about one to two weeks, but others will develop life-threatening complications (such as pneumonia).  The lower air humidity in winter seems to be the main cause of seasonal influenza transmission in temperate regions.  It was introduced into English in the mid-eighteenth century during a pan-European epidemic.  The vaccine is usually effective against three or four types of influenza. , The antiviral medications amantadine and rimantadine inhibit a viral ion channel (M2 protein), thus inhibiting replication of the influenza A virus. Learn more.  The symptoms of human influenza were clearly described by Hippocrates roughly 2,400 years ago. In Rome, over 8,000 people were killed. , Influenza produces direct costs due to lost productivity and associated medical treatment, as well as indirect costs of preventive measures. Typically, biologics do not target metabolic pathways like anti-viral drugs, but stimulate immune cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and/or antigen-presenting cells, in an effort to drive an immune response towards a cytotoxic effect against the virus.  One method of calculating influenza mortality produced an estimate of 41,400 average deaths per year in the United States between 1979 and 2001.  However, despite these varied shapes, the viral particles of all influenza viruses are similar in composition. Delivered to your inbox! In almost all cases, those infected have had extensive physical contact with infected birds.  At home, this can be done effectively with a diluted chlorine bleach. It was applied specifically to an influenza epidemic which began in Italy in 1743, later adopted in English … by direct transmission (when an infected person sneezes mucus directly into the eyes, nose or mouth of another person); the airborne route (when someone inhales the.  Smoking is another risk factor associated with more serious disease and increased mortality from influenza.  In hospitals, quaternary ammonium compounds and bleach are used to sanitize rooms or equipment that have been occupied by people with influenza symptoms. , Influenza's effects are much more severe and last longer than those of the common cold. Define flu. Diarrhea is not usually a symptom of influenza in adults, although it has been seen in some human cases of the H5N1 "bird flu" and can be a symptom in children. " The majority of deaths were from bacterial pneumonia, a secondary infection caused by influenza, but the virus also killed people directly, causing massive hemorrhages and edema in the lung. , Three of the four types of influenza viruses affect humans: Type A, Type B, and Type C. Type D has not been known to infect humans, but is believed to have the potential to do so. , A number of biologics, therapeutic vaccines and immunobiologics are also being investigated for treatment of infection caused by viruses. It was introduced into English in the mid-eighteenth century during a pan-European epidemic.  In contrast to the rhinovirus that causes the common cold, influenza does cause tissue damage, so symptoms are not entirely due to the inflammatory response. These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'influenza.' Some isolates of influenza A virus cause severe disease both in domestic poultry and, rarely, in humans.  This idea was first proposed by Robert Edgar Hope-Simpson in 1981. Increased travel due to the Northern Hemisphere winter holiday season may also play a role. It was incorrectly assumed that the cause of influenza was bacterial in origin from 1892 (with Haemophilus influenzae being discovered by and suggested as the origin of influenza by R. F. J. / influˈenzə/.  The disease may have spread from Europe to the Americas as early as the European colonization of the Americas, since almost the entire indigenous population of the Antilles was killed by an epidemic resembling influenza that broke out in 1493, after the arrival of Christopher Columbus. medical. In pigs, horses and dogs, influenza symptoms are similar to humans, with cough, fever and loss of appetite. This could explain why influenza occurs mostly in winter and during the tropical rainy season, when people stay indoors, away from the sun, and their vitamin D levels fall. As many as 25 million may have been killed in the first 25 weeks; in contrast, HIV/AIDS has killed 25 million in its first 25 years. , Hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are the two large glycoproteins on the outside of the viral particles. , From a public health point of view, flu epidemics spread rapidly and are very difficult to control.  In those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease vaccination reduces exacerbations, it is not clear if it reduces asthma exacerbations.  Children are much more infectious than adults and shed virus from just before they develop symptoms until two weeks after infection.  This is unusual since influenza is normally most deadly to the very young (under age 2) and the very old (over age 70). Definition of influenza written for English Language Learners from the Merriam-Webster Learner's Dictionary with audio pronunciations, usage examples, and count/noncount noun labels.  Since influenza is caused by a virus, antibiotics have no effect on the infection; unless prescribed for secondary infections such as bacterial pneumonia.  Getting infected by influenza itself increases both the risk of death (up to 1 in 10,000) and increases the risk of developing GBS to a much higher level than the highest level of suspected vaccine involvement (approx. noun. However, in highly virulent strains, such as H5N1, the hemagglutinin can be cleaved by a wide variety of proteases, allowing the virus to spread throughout the body. influenza.  After the hemagglutinin is cleaved by a protease, the cell imports the virus by endocytosis. ", "The challenge of avian influenza to the veterinary community", "Low pathogenicity (LPAI) and highly pathogenic (HPAI) avian influenza in turkeys and chicken", "Genesis of a highly pathogenic and potentially pandemic H5N1 influenza virus in eastern Asia", "Avian influenza – a pandemic waiting to happen?  However, since the strains produced by drift will still be reasonably similar to the older strains, some people will still be immune to them. Bleeding from the ears and petechial hemorrhages in the skin also occurred. Other viral proteins have multiple actions in the host cell, including degrading cellular mRNA and using the released nucleotides for vRNA synthesis and also inhibiting translation of host-cell mRNAs.. In some cases, other forms of social distancing including school closures and travel restrictions are recommended.  About 20% of unvaccinated children and 10% of unvaccinated adults are infected each year. , An avian-adapted, highly pathogenic strain of H5N1 (called HPAI A(H5N1), for "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1") causes H5N1 flu, commonly known as "avian influenza" or simply "bird flu", and is endemic in many bird populations, especially in Southeast Asia.  The length of time the virus will persist on a surface varies, with the virus surviving for one to two days on hard, non-porous surfaces such as plastic or metal, for about fifteen minutes on dry paper tissues, and only five minutes on skin. WN.com - Articles related to Indonesia girl dies from bird flu, 3 undergo tests “The word influenza comes from the Old Italian,” she said.  The symptoms following infection with low-pathogenicity avian influenza may be as mild as ruffled feathers, a small reduction in egg production, or weight loss combined with minor respiratory disease. Antiviral medication may be effective, if given early (within 48 hours to first symptoms), but some strains of influenza can show resistance to the standard antiviral medications and there is concern about the quality of the research. RNA tends to be single stranded but in special cases it is double. An alternative hypothesis to explain seasonality in influenza infections is an effect of vitamin D levels on immunity to the virus. Gives Swine Flu a Less Loaded, More Scientific Name", "Virus's Tangled Genes Straddle Continents, Raising a Mystery About Its Origins", "Influenza pandemics of the 20th century", "Antiviral response in pandemic influenza viruses", "Influenza pandemic periodicity, virus recycling, and the art of risk assessment", "Pandemic threat posed by avian influenza A viruses", "Prevention and control of influenza.  A person may be infectious to others both before and during the time they are showing symptoms. Knowing which genes are carried by a particular strain can help predict how well it will infect humans and how severe this infection will be (that is, predict the strain's pathophysiology). In all, 50 human cases are known to have occurred since the virus was identified in the mid-20th century, which have resulted in six deaths.  In the northern and southern parts of the world, outbreaks occur mainly in the winter, while around the equator, outbreaks may occur at any time of the year. 'influenza' est un terme alternatif pour 'flu'. .  In contrast to this model of pandemics based on antigenic drift and shift, an alternative approach has been proposed where the periodic pandemics are produced by interactions of a fixed set of viral strains with a human population with a constantly changing set of immunities to different viral strains. 1 a : an acute, highly contagious, respiratory disease caused by any of three orthomyxoviruses: (1) or influenza A : moderate to severe influenza that in humans is … Because of the absence of RNA proofreading enzymes, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that copies the viral genome makes an error roughly every 10 thousand nucleotides, which is the approximate length of the influenza vRNA.  Infected pigs can lose up to 12 pounds of body weight over a three- to four-week period. Influenza. See the full definition for influenza in the English Language Learners Dictionary, Nglish: Translation of influenza for Spanish Speakers, Britannica English: Translation of influenza for Arabic Speakers, Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article about influenza. Archaic terms for influenza include epidemic catarrh, la grippe (from the French, first used by Molyneaux in 1694; also used in German), sweating sickness, and Spanish fever (particularly for the 1918 flu pandemic strain). A respiratory infection caused by a virus of the Orthomyxoviridae family and spread mainly by the aerosol of droplets coughed and sneezed by sufferers. influenza. Send us feedback. , A 2018 Cochrane review of children in good general health found that the live immunization seemed to lower the risk of getting influenza for the season from 18% to 4%.  Direct transmission of an influenza virus from pigs to humans is occasionally possible (this is called zoonotic swine flu).  The length of each particle varies considerably, owing to the fact that influenza is pleomorphic, and can be in excess of many tens of micrometers, producing filamentous virions. The virus has the potential to infect humans, although no such cases have been observed. influensa. All known subtypes (HxNy) are found in birds, but many subtypes are endemic in humans, dogs, horses, and pigs; populations of camels, ferrets, cats, seals, mink, and whales also show evidence of prior infection or exposure to influenza. Influenza, better known as the flu and sometimes called the grippe, is a common childhood illness, but is not as common among adults.  Due to the high lethality and virulence of H5N1, its endemic presence, and its large and increasing biological host reservoir, the H5N1 virus was the world's major pandemic threat in the 2006–07 flu season, and billions of dollars are being raised and spent researching H5N1 and preparing for a potential influenza pandemic. This page was last edited on 11 December 2020, at 05:01. People with emphysema, chronic bronchitis or asthma may experience shortness of breath while they have the flu, and influenza may cause worsening of coronary heart disease or congestive heart failure. One important basic research program is the Influenza Genome Sequencing Project, which was initiated in 2004 to create a library of influenza sequences and help clarify which factors make one strain more lethal than another, which genes most affect immunogenicity, and how the virus evolves over time.  For example, the influenza A genome contains 11 genes on eight pieces of RNA, encoding for 11 proteins: hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), nucleoprotein (NP), M1 (matrix 1 protein), M2, NS1 (non-structural protein 1), NS2 (other name is NEP, nuclear export protein), PA, PB1 (polymerase basic 1), PB1-F2 and PB2. In addition, if a child (or presumably an adult) seems to be getting better and then relapses with a high fever, that is a danger sign since this relapse can be bacterial pneumonia.  In the developed world most of those who die are over the age of 65. , For instance, part of the process that allows influenza viruses to invade cells is the cleavage of the viral hemagglutinin protein by any one of several human proteases. In 2006, a study estimated that if a strain with similar virulence to the 1918 influenza had emerged that year, it could have killed between 50 and 80 million people.  In healthy children over the age of two years, the vaccine reduces the chances of getting influenza by around two-thirds, while it has not been well studied in children under two years.  Most influenza strains are believed to have originated after humans began their intensive domestication of animals about 10,000 years ago. Not enough data was available to draw definite conclusions about serious complications such as pneumonia or hospitalization. The vRNA and viral core proteins leave the nucleus and enter this membrane protrusion (step 6). , In some cases, an autoimmune response to an influenza infection may contribute to the development of Guillain–Barré syndrome. actually a swine flu) or of transmission from pigs to people; instead, the virus spreads from person to person. , Once inside the cell, the acidic conditions in the endosome cause two events to happen: First, part of the hemagglutinin protein fuses the viral envelope with the vacuole's membrane, then the M2 ion channel allows protons to move through the viral envelope and acidify the core of the virus, which causes the core to disassemble and release the viral RNA and core proteins. , Flu symptoms in birds are variable and can be unspecific.  Smoking raises the risk of contracting influenza, as well as producing more severe disease symptoms. A highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory passages causing fever, severe aching, and catarrh, and often occurring in epidemics. , The first convincing record of an influenza pandemic was a minor pandemic chronicled in 1510, which began in East Asia before spreading to North Africa and then Europe. People at higher risk of developing flu complications include: 1. Another word for influenza. The central core contains the viral RNA genome and other viral proteins that package and protect this RNA.  H5N1 may mutate or reassort into a strain capable of efficient human-to-human transmission. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)", "Vaccines and antiviral drugs in pandemic preparedness", "Making better influenza virus vaccines? , The two classes of antiviral medications used against influenza are neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir, laninamivir and peramivir) and M2 protein inhibitors (adamantane derivatives).  Many people are so ill that they are confined to bed for several days, with aches and pains throughout their bodies, which are worse in their backs and legs.  In Russia, umifenovir is sold for treatment of influenza and in the first quarter of 2020 had a 16 percent share in the antiviral market.  As a result of this lack of antigenic diversity, a degree of immunity to influenza B is usually acquired at an early age. The more moderate effect on total deaths was attributed to the measures being employed too late, or lifted too early, most after six weeks or less.  Symptoms in 1918 were so unusual that initially influenza was misdiagnosed as dengue, cholera, or typhoid. One observer wrote, "One of the most striking of the complications was hemorrhage from mucous membranes, especially from the nose, stomach, and intestine. , Common symptoms of the flu such as fever, headaches, and fatigue are the result of the huge amounts of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (such as interferon or tumor necrosis factor) produced from influenza-infected cells.  The virus particle (also called the virion) is 80–120 nanometers in diameter such that the smallest virions adopt an elliptical shape. influenza definition: 1. formal for flu 2. formal for flu 3. flu. It is known that virions converge to the microtubule organizing center, interact with acidic endosomes and finally enter the target endosomes for genome release. Definition of flu written for English Language Learners from the Merriam-Webster Learner's Dictionary with audio pronunciations, usage examples, and count/noncount noun labels. It is highly infectious to the susceptible, … It takes about six months for the manufacturers to formulate and produce the millions of doses required to deal with the seasonal epidemics; occasionally, a new or overlooked strain becomes prominent during that time. The unusually severe disease killed between two and twenty percent of those infected, as opposed to the more usual flu epidemic mortality rate of 0.1%.  Two decision analysis studies suggest that during local outbreaks of influenza, the prevalence will be over 70%. [ ĭn′flōō-ĕn ′zə ] A highly contagious infectious disease that is caused by any of various viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae and is characterized by fever, respiratory symptoms, fatigue, and muscle pain… , Occasionally, influenza can cause severe illness including primary viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia. , In pigs swine influenza produces fever, lethargy, sneezing, coughing, difficulty breathing and decreased appetite.  He proposed that the cause of influenza epidemics during winter may be connected to seasonal fluctuations of vitamin D, which is produced in the skin under the influence of solar (or artificial) UV radiation. Avoiding spitting is also recommended. , The viral hemagglutinin protein is responsible for determining both which species a strain can infect and where in the human respiratory tract a strain of influenza will bind. Definition of influenza. This Asian lineage strain of HPAI A(H5N1) is spreading globally.  The frequency of animal diseases are not as well-studied as human infection, but an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals caused approximately 500 seal deaths off the New England coast in 1979–1980. Adults older than age 65 3. , Later flu pandemics were not so devastating. influenza definition in English dictionary, influenza meaning, synonyms, see also 'influenzal',influent',influential',influence'.  It should be done within 3–4 days of symptom onset, as upper respiratory viral shedding takes a downward spiral after that.  The Army was deeply involved in this research due to its experience of influenza in World War I, when thousands of troops were killed by the virus in a matter of months.  Occasionally, viruses are transmitted to other species and may then cause devastating outbreaks in domestic poultry or give rise to human influenza pandemics. , Although the number of cases of influenza can vary widely between years, approximately 36,000 deaths and more than 200,000 hospitalizations are directly associated with influenza a year in the United States.  Even in the absence of a local outbreak, diagnosis may be justified in the elderly during the influenza season as long as the prevalence is over 15%. Influenza is commonly called the flu, but it's not the same as stomach \"flu\" viruses that cause diarrhea and vomiting.For most people, influenza resolves on its own.  How long influenza survives in airborne droplets seems to be influenced by the levels of humidity and UV radiation, with low humidity and a lack of sunlight in winter aiding its survival; ideal conditions can allow it to live for an hour in the atmosphere. , The word Influenza comes from the Italian language meaning "influence" and refers to the cause of the disease; initially, this ascribed illness to unfavorable astrological influences. , The fourth family of influenza viruses – Influenza D – was identified in 2016. , The flu can worsen chronic health problems. Some strains such as Asian H9N2 are highly virulent to poultry and may cause more extreme symptoms and significant mortality.  It is usually well tolerated. Enrich your vocabulary with the English Definition dictionary  In the developing world the effects are less clear; however, it appears that children are affected to a greater degree. 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