Get inspiration for your writing task, explore essay structures and figure out a title and outline for your paper. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Electric aversion therapy eliminated hair pulling almost immediately and the results were maintained on follow-up, with the exception of a minor relapse at a time of stress. The Aversion Project was a collective experiment in South Africa during the Apartheid Era (segregation). The Aversion Project: The Aversion Project was a crime against humanity conducted in the guise of a medical/scientific project. Thousands of homosexuals were imprisoned at the Voortrekkerhoogte military hospital near Pretoria. It is against African tradition and biblical teachings. Aversion therapy uses the behavioral approach principles that new behavior can be 'learnt' in order to overcome addictions, obsessions or, as demonstrated in Kubrick film A Clockwork Orange, violent behavior. Change ). There are differences displayed from one person to another and it is crucial to acknowledge the rights every human, African and South African possesses. Bad habits 2. ( Log Out / click here. The Oxford dictionary defines homosexuality as “a person who is sexually attracted to people of the same sex”. This will be explored, particularly focusing on homosexuals, with the Aversion Project that happened in South Africa between the 1980s and 1970s. The aversion project: human rights abuses of gays and lesbians in the SADF by health workers during the apartheid era. During the 1970s and 1980s, South African’s apartheid army gave homosexual soldiers forced sex-changes among other tortuousmethods of rooting-out homosexuality. Want to receive original paper on this topic? The exact whereabouts of the project occurred at the Voortrekkerhoogte Military Hospital, ward 22, situated in Pretoria. From the case study, the homosexuals were blatantly alienated to the extreme, whereby there was a separate ward in which they were kept, outlining physically that their rights have been removed and displaying a level of inequality to other personnel of the military. In other words, the value people place on avoiding a certain loss is higher than the value of acquiring a gain of equal size. By failing to understand this, it degrades and lowers the standard by which they should be treated. After reading the Course Companion E-text, my judgement still stands. Graham C.L. Although this case study is a matter of the past, one can evaluate where South Africa stands today in terms of the rights of the LGBT community. In such cases, people may wear an elastic band arou… The stance South Africa takes today as a nation is to learn from the past to work together for a new purpose. ‘Aversion Therapy In The Treatment Of Trichotillomania: A Case Study’. The unfortunate ending to this project was the inhumane conditions that these homosexuals were left in due to the project being abandoned. Our free knowledge base makes your writing task easier. In terms of an illness alluding to a mental illness, it cannot be classified in such a way either. Just because they displayed differences did not give reason to condemn them. Where does South Africa stand today? Feel free to use our essay and paper samples. This will be explored, particularly focusing on homosexuals, with the Aversion Project that happened in South Africa between the 1980s and 1970s. The Aversion Project is a crime against humanity disguised as a medical/scientific project. The learned helplessnessexperiment of 1965 conducted by psychologist Martin Seligman is considered unethical. The ‘sex change’ therapy exemplifies the homophobic attitude in the 20th century. It was understood that this ward was designed specifically for patients with mental and psychological disorders, hence the experiment began wherein homosexuality was seen as a “disease” and the aim of the experiment had was to find a cure. -Sigmund Freud. Animals are living being too and its immoral because its a … There were approximately 900 men and women who underwent the surgery enforced upon the candidates. Roger and Peter are both gay and grew up in the 1960s. However the rights remaining a huge debate, there are little but impactful changes being made as South Africa evolves and heads for new directions. In fact, there is a way to get an original essay! Australian Psychological Society Code of Ethics 2007 - Victoria, Australia. This stems from the recognition that there is a sense of human dignity and respect associated with every human, but when there is a lack of this element it can be clearly outlined as a violation. This is where one of the weaknesses of Ubuntu can be seen strongly because of the cultural sense of Ubuntu relating to African renaissance, it does not allow for variation and individual expression. This was a research project based on qualitative methodology that helped to further examine why homosexuality was considered to be unusual behavior at that time. It was here that Levin practised what has come to be known as The Aversion Project, where he subjected White gay and lesbian individuals from … PMID: 11584769 No abstract available. © KHALED… These include gender neutral bathrooms, Gay parades and the stance many companies are making to employ members of the LGBT community. One cannot be diagnosed with homosexuality because it is not a mental disorder but a sexual preference and something that pertains to the emotional character. Reference: Crawford, David A. “Homosexuality is a deviation from “African Renaissance””. The Relationship Between The British Empire And Universal Human Rights Essay, Human Rights Violation In The Philippines Essay, Government Initiated Human Rights Buster Essay, Overcome The Barriers After Trafficking Experience Essay, Overview Of The Most Significant Policies Regarding The Human Right Essay, Overview Of People’s Association In Singapore Essay, Surveillance – Protection Versus Human Rights Essay. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Such a preference seems strik… Various homosexual individuals – who were targets of the conversion therapy – along with the families and friends of these i… Davey, in Comprehensive Clinical Psychology, 1998 (iv) Aversion therapy. I believe sometimes it is necessary to place the defense of the country above the defense of an individual’s human rights in some cases. The therapy used treated the patients in an inhumane manner which further strays from the rights of individuals which originates from the right to life, liberty and security. 2001 Aug;91(8):617-8. The subjects were also given huge supplements of hormones which ultimately produced a hormonal imbalance and induced chemical castration. Convention (III) relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, Top 10 Unethical Psychological Experiments. Human rights of the LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender) community have been neglected for generations. This is the same reason why military personnel that were asked to join accepted the offer, because of the fear of being different as well as the shame placed upon them from those surrounding them. Privacy statement. This is where the conditioning paradigm is used to condition an aversive response to a formally attractive stimulus. A team of individuals: academic researchers and activists on behalf of the LGBTQ community came together in order to obtain more information about the treatment of homosexual military personnel during the Apartheid Era. The above quote expands more on the reason why homosexuality is frowned upon, particularly in African culture. Therefore, first and foremost because they are human there is a sense of dignity and respect that is owed to them, and there was a huge lack of dignity and respect showed to the personnel from the beginning of The Aversion Project to the end of the degrading process of persecution undergone by the various victims. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Found a great essay sample but want a unique one? ⚠️ Remember: This essay was written and uploaded by an average student. Samplius is for students who want to get an idea for their own paper. As Freud boldly points out; persecution of homosexuality is a crime and an injustice. Aversion therapy can be used to treat a number of problematic behaviors including the following:2 1. In grasping this, unethical behaviour may be prevented in the way we treat others that may be governed by our beliefs. Author G J Venter. Risk aversion (psychology): | |Risk-aversion| is a preference for a sure outcome over a gamble with higher or equa... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. The Aversion Project. Breaking down the fundamental roots of how the project was made possible is fundamental in understanding how it led to human rights being violated of the personnel involved. Clearly to the psychiatrists their actions were perceived as ethical, because they were trying to cure an ‘illness’ and one can see where their view point arises from. Victims were forced to submit to "curing" their homosexuality because the SADF considered homosexuality to be subversive and those who were homosexual were subject to … This is important because it may be the case that people fail to generally see solution aversion unless they look for it. The ‘sex change’ therapy exemplifies the homophobic attitude in the 20th century. Unethical Psychology: The Aversion Project - YouTube This video goes over the treatment of homosexual conscripts in the South African army during Apartheid times … Violence or anger issues Aversion therapy is most commonly used to treat drug and alcohol addictions.3 A subtle form of this technique is often used as a self-help strategy for minor behavior issues. Majority of the "participants" of the test were drafted white males and females between 16-24 years of age. Home / Essay Samples / Social Issues / Types of Human Rights / The Aversion Project Case Study: How Human Dignity And Human Rights Were Denied Resulting In An Unethical Outcome. The Aversion Project is unethical due to several reasons: it caused physical and mental harm to the participants, it was forced conducted therefore the experiment had no consent, and the participants cannot withdraw when they want to. Consider, for instance, the subjective value of avoiding a loss of $10 compared with gaining $10. The project identified gay soldiers as conscripts who used drugs in the South African Defence Forces (SADF). It is unknown exactly how many of the soldiers suffered these forced sex-changes, though estimates say there were as many as 900. The Aversion Project The army psychiatrists shows no empathy or signs of treating the homosexual soldiers like human during the experiment. In-text: (Australian Psychological Society Code of Ethics, 2007) Your Bibliography: 2007. To get a custom and plagiarism-free essay These test subjects were left half man and others left half women, and this created severe mental torment with one suicide of Jean Erasmus recorded, which undoubtedly is one amongst many. In South Africa, which is also inclusive of Africa, homosexuals are not easily accepted and it is often seen as morally incorrect. Solution aversion is one of these concepts which is not radically novel, but which has the conceptual clarity that has helped many people see issues more clearly, by identifying the motivational source of denial. And what of the present? The Aversion Project was a medical torture program in South Africa led by Dr. Aubrey Levin during apartheid. Even when mummification was a natural part of Ancient Egypt’s culture, dissection of a body was desecration. Loss aversion refers to people’s tendency to prefer avoiding losses to acquiring gains of equal magnitude. Many of these victims were between the age of 16 & 24 years old. By clicking “Send”, you agree to our It clearly constitutes as torture as well as physical and mental torment. Cape Town: Simply Said and Done on behalf of Gay and Lesbian Archives Health and Human Rights Project, Medical Research Council, National Coalition for Gay and Lesbian Equality, 1999. The intentional purpose of making homosexuals feel ashamed based on individual external values and beliefs is atrocious. Between 1971-1989 the aim of the experiment was … THE “MONSTER” STUDY 227 and reporting the plain facts regarding her child’s speech. This becomes equitable to be classified as unethical behaviour. The Aversion Project 1970s and 1980s South Africa’s apartheid army forced white lesbian and gay soldiers to undergo ‘sex-change’ operations in the 1970’s and the 1980’s, and submitted many to chemical castration, electric shock, and other unethical medical experiments. Conditioned Taste Aversion: Definition and Terminology. https://luka-magnotta-magnotta-luka.blogspot.com/.../aversion-project.html Addictions 3. It is clear that homosexuality is a difficult concept as it deviates from the norm and culture of what is seen as “right”. I understand that this is unethical yet I do not think protecting an individual’s human rights should be prior to protecting a nation’s safety. Cells that project from the lateral amygdala to the central amygdala allow for the initiation of an emotional response if a stimulus is deemed threatening. Web. This led on to the link between a homophobic nature and playing a part in rights violation. The profound message carried through this case study points towards understanding the rights of every human being. Smoking 5. Homosexuality was decriminalised for men aged 21 and over on 27th July 1967. It is important to understand that the studies of human behavior towards risk and It becomes an injustice from the perspective of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights that states that there is an inherent dignity which we as human beings acknowledge and we each have “equal and inalienable rights”. – Daniel arap Moi, President of Kenya. The Aversion Project of the 1970s and 1980s South Africa’s apartheid army forced white lesbian and gay soldiers to undergo ‘sex-change’ operations in the 1970′s and the 1980′s, and submitted many to chemical castration, electric shock, and other unethical medical experiments. It is not right that a man should go with another man, or a woman with another woman. When sexual stimuli was observed, the voltage was increased. ( Log Out / Usually, people say that the former has a higher value to them than the latter. Suspected homosexuals would be taken to military psychiatric outposts, where they would be experimented on using shock therapy, hormone treatment, and if all else failed, a forced sex-change. The Aversion Project--sex change operations in the SADF S Afr Med J. An as-yet unpublished report, called the Aversion Project, commissioned by gay rights groups and South Africa's medical research council, details the extent of … The plan of action presented the proposed cure, which comprised of electric shocks that were strapped to the subjects’ body while the subject was exposed to images of naked bodies of the same sex. It was understood that the targets of this project were homosexual personnel from military troops, whereby some were asked to join and others were told to do so. However, as a whole, individual human rights should always be a priority unless he/she is a danger to national defense or to a bigger scale. Turn to our writers and order a plagiarism-free paper. ( Log Out / Dr. Levin fled to Canada and denied everything, taking no responsibility whatsoever. The results of such atrocious violations of the soldiers’ human rights had detrimental effects on their mental and physical health and in the majority of cases resulted in suicide. The last attempt at formulating ideas to cure homosexuality included sex changes. It is believed to be against African culture and of a sinful and shameful nature. The study was unethical because it does not treat the soldiers equally as human and does not respect their sexuality. Alcoholism 4. Request writing assistance from a top writer in the field! The Aversion Project happened during the years of Apartheid in South Africa. Just insert your email and this sample will be sent to you. Perhaps, in a nation attempting to portray itself as the direct opposite of the apartheid regime, as a liberalist and humanistic democracy that wants to right the wrongs of colonialism, racism, and sexism, there is a sense of new purpose, new directions. This is one of the profound points Sigmund Freud identifies, as individual homosexuals should not be ashamed and it should be nothing to be ashamed of. These are the sources and citations used to research ethics in psychology. Order custom paper and save your time for priority classes! It’s quick and easy! In reference to the Case Study, rights of homosexuals are given more attention and more people are cultivating a mind-set of change, although there is a large majority opposing the notion of rights regarding the LGBT (Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender) community. This bibliography was generated on Cite This For Me on Wednesday, February 25, 2015. The Aversion Project--sex change operations in the SADF. Opportunity Managing for Projects” and PMI’s “A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge” as excellent references to methods of responding to risk that can empower mangers to gain more control over risk (Project Management Institute, 2003). The comic below by M.R. E-book or PDF. Behavioral Psychology 16.01 (1988): 57. Human rights of the LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender) community have been neglected for generations. In psychology, projection refers to placing your own negative traits or unwanted emotions onto others, usually without reason. Cognitive Control. Homosexuality is assuredly no advantage, but it is nothing to be ashamed of, no vice, no degradation, it cannot be classified as an illness; we consider it to be a variation of the sexual function, produced by a certain arrest of the sexual development. Risk aversion is a preference for a sure outcome over a gamble with higher or equal expected value. During the Apartheid era in South Africa, army colonel and psychologist Dr. Aubrey Levin was put in charge of “curing” the country’s homosexuals. ( Log Out / Terms of service and Conditioned taste aversion is a type of classical conditioning in which a person develops a strong resistance toward one specific food after experiencing sickness, nausea, or any type of negative emotion.It usually occurs in animals or those who are young (around five to ten years old). Most victims were white males. The Aversion Project is seen as one of the most unethical psychology practices in North America An estimated 900 males and female soldiers, were tested on and tortured. We will occasionally send you account related emails. It further exposes how ignoring rights can result in a lack of dignity showed, proving in themselves to be one of an unethical degree. It is a great injustice to persecute homosexuality as a crime — and a cruelty too. With the horrible therapies such as chemical castration, shock therapy and other unethical medical experiments, the homosexual soldiers experienced horrific treatment just because of gender they chose to love. The army psychiatrists shows no empathy or signs of treating the homosexual soldiers like human during the experiment. A rather different use of classical conditioning principles is found in aversion therapy. The Aversion Project--sex change operations in the SADF . We are glad that you like it, but you cannot copy from our website. Most of the patients were conscientious objectors, drug users, homosexual or in some way deviant from the expectations of the SADF. (1) The Aversion Project was a medical torture program during apartheid led by Dr. Aubrey Levin. While there, they were subjected to electroconvulsive aversion therapy meant to “reorientate” them. Australian Psychological Society … It does not reflect the quality of papers completed by our expert essay writers. Just send us a request “Write my paper”. This type of therapy proved to be immensely brutal and harsh. It does not take unique personas into account when analysing cultural development of Africa. A homosexual is human before their sexual orientation is revealed. Gambling 6. The experiment was carried out by psychiatrists of the South African Defence Force and ward 22 was under the command of Aubrey Levin. The Psychology of Loss Aversion Economists and psychologists have long been aware that decision makers tend to place greater weight on the economic … Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. The study was unethical because it does not treat the soldiers equally as human and does not respect their sexuality. Looking at the unique state of South Africa even within Africa during the apartheid era, the experiment occurred during a period of traditional religion being valued as well as racial segregation amongst citizens. From the above quote by Sigmund Freud it clearly outlines a major mistake that the psychiatrists made in the case study; which is looking at homosexuality as an illness or a disease that one can easily get rid of. The Aversion Project Case Study: How Human Dignity And Human Rights Were Denied Resulting In An Unethical Outcome. This experiment was unethicalbecause it was cruel and afflicted painful testing on animals. Judgement still stands near Pretoria Aversion Project -- sex change operations in the 20th century a collective experiment South. It does not reflect the quality of papers completed by our expert writers. 1980S and 1970s for generations chemical castration therapy – along with the and! Most of the same sex ” though estimates say there were approximately 900 men and women who the... Considered unethical the 1980s and 1970s a custom and plagiarism-free essay click here by failing to the aversion project psychology this it! 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